Writing a Bibliography: APA Format-standard formats and examples
Listed here are standard formats and examples for basic information that is bibliographic by the American Psychological Association (APA). To learn more about the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Your selection of works cited should begin at the conclusion of the paper on a page that is new the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list because of the author’s last name, making use of the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Just the initials for the first and middle names are given. An, or The if the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A.
For dates, spell out of the names of months within the text of your paper, but abbreviate them into the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the style that is day-month-year22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and start to become consistent. With the style that is month-day-year make sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the true names of publications were underlined since most typewriters had no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you really need to still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should really be in italics as they are below. Always check along with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first line of an entry must certanly be flush left, plus the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using capitalization that is sentence-style the titles of books or articles, therefore you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions for this rule could be titles that are periodical proper names in a title that ought to still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and it is followed by the quantity number which, utilizing the title, can be italicized.
When there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) prior to the name paper writing service associated with the last author. If there are many than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the remainder.
Place the date of publication in parentheses soon after the name of the author. Place a period following the closing parenthesis. Usually do not italicize, underline, or put quotes all over titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a history of the heroes of the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the newest encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: usually do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period of time following the title. Then give the page range (in regular type) without “pp. if a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and” If the periodical will not use volume numbers, such as newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, 9) april. Making the grade in the present schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, 21) july. California town counts town to big quake. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any books that are good? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, 15) february. Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved day, year, from full URL month
Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) immediately after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that would go to another line after a slash or before a period of time. Continually check your references to online documents. There isn’t any period following a URL. Note: if you fail to find some of this given information, cite what is present.
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html january
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom in our midst. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html
Note: If a document is contained within a big and website that is complexsuch as for instance that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization therefore the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.